Upgrading and Repairing PCs 1

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AMD K8 Processors 124
AMD Athlon 64 and 64 FX 124
AMD Sempron 128
AMD Athlon X2, 64 X2, and 64 FX 128
AMD K10 Processors (Phenom, Phenom II,
Athlon II, Athlon X2, Sempron) 130
AMD Bulldozer, Piledriver, Steamroller, and
Excavator FX Processors 134
AMD Fusion/HSA APUs 137
Processor Upgrades 139
Overclocking 142
Quartz Crystals 142
Modern PC Clocks 145
Overclocking Tips 147
Unlocking Cores 148
Bus Speeds and Multipliers 149
Processor Cooling 152
Heatsinks 152
Liquid Cooling 158
Thermally Advantaged Chassis 159
Processor Troubleshooting Techniques 161
4 Motherboards and Buses 165
Motherboard Form Factors 165
Obsolete Form Factors 166
ATX and Other Modern Form
Factors 177
Processor Sockets/Slots 189
Chipsets 192
Chipset Evolution 193
Intel Chipsets 195
Intel Chipset Model Numbers 195
Intel Integrated Graphics
Architecture 197
AMD Integrated Graphics
Architecture 197
Traditional North/southbridge
Architecture 197
Hub Architecture 199
HyperTransport and Other Processor/
Chipset Interconnects 201
Intel’s Early 386/486 Chipsets 201
Fifth-Generation (P5 Pentium Class)
Chipsets 202
Sixth-Generation (P6 Pentium Pro/II/III Class)
Chipsets 203
Seventh/Eighth-Generation (Pentium 4/D,
Core 2, and Core i) Chipsets 207
Intel 915 Family 215
Intel 925X Family 215
Intel 945 Express Family 216
Intel 955X and 975X Family 217
Intel 96x Series 217

Intel 3x and 4x Series Chipsets 218
Intel 5x Series Chipsets 220
Intel 6x Series Chipsets 224
Intel 7x Series Chipsets 225
Intel 8x Series Chipsets 227
Intel 9x Series Chipsets 229
Third-Party Chipsets for Intel Processors 231
SiS Chipsets 231
ULi Electronics Chipsets 231
ATI Chipsets 231
VIA Chipsets 232
NVIDIA Chipsets for Intel Processors 232
Chipsets for AMD Processors 232
AMD Athlon Chipsets 233
AMD Athlon 64 Chipsets 234
AMD 8000 (8151) Chipset 234
AMD (Formerly ATI) Chipsets for Athlon
64, Sempron, Phenom 235
Third-Party Chipsets for AMD
Processors 242
VIA Chipsets 242
SiS Chipsets 242
NVIDIA Chipsets 243
Super I/O Chips 244
Motherboard Connectors 244
System Bus Types, Functions, and
Features 255
The Processor Bus (FSB) 261
Types of I/O Buses 262
The ISA Bus 262
The Micro Channel Bus 262
The EISA Bus 263
Local Buses (VESA, PCI, PCI Express,
AGP) 263
System Resources 270
Interrupts 271
DMA Channels 276
I/O Port Addresses 276
Motherboard Selection Criteria (Knowing
What to Look For) 278
Chipset Documentation 279
5 BIOS 281
BIOS Basics 281
Motherboard ROM BIOS 285
ROM Hardware 285
ROM Shadowing 287
ROM Chip Types 287
ROM BIOS Manufacturers 291
BIOS Hardware/Software 292
Upgrading the BIOS 292
Where to Get Your BIOS Update 293
Determining Your BIOS Version 293